English phonological errors by Kimakunduchi speaking EFL learners in Zanzibar

Erasmus Akiley Msuya, Salim Ali Mohamed

Abstract


The aim of the present study was to find the phonological errors on segmental level involving selected consonant sounds which are produced by Kimakunduchi speaking English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners in Zanzibar. Specifically, the study sought to provide the evidence of cross-linguistic influence involving phonological transfer on segmental level. The study employed two sampling techniques: stratified and random sampling. The data for this study were collected from three secondary schools located at Makunduchi district in Unguja Island – Makunduchi, Kusini, and Kizimkazi secondary schools – using the oral interview and observation. The data were analyzed with the use of both qualitative and quantitative research approach. The study was guided by the transfer theory which was one of the components of Selinker’s (1992: 209) interlanguage theory. The findings revealed that, to a large extent, native Kimakunduchi speakers of EFL tended to transfer the sounds existing in their L1, or even in Kiswahili, into English. The transfer was done because of the nonexistence of the particular sound in the students’ native language or because of the discrepancy of spelling and pronunciation in English language. The study concludes that an articulation of vowels is more complex compared to consonants because of their absence in the first language (L1) or because of the confusion of spelling and pronunciation in English as FL. Thus, the study recommended that serious measures should be taken from both education holders to make sure that the learners could be able to pronounce English phonemes/words correctly.


Keywords


Consonants; Foreign Language; Interlanguage; Kimakunduchi; Language Errors

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Khawalda, M. & A. Al-Oliemat. (n.d). Linguistic Transfer: Example from Arabic users of English. Unpublished Paper. http://web.aou.edu.lb/files/lebanon/Linguistic%20Transfer%20Example%20from.pdf [8.06.2020].

Batibo, H. M. 1990. “English Language Teaching and Learning in Tanzania Primary Schools”. Language in Education in Africa: A Tanzania Perspective, ed. by C. M. Rubagumya (Multilingual Matters 57). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 54-74.

Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. http://dictionary.cambridge.org [8.06.2020].

Celce-Murcia, M., Brighton, D. M., & Goodwin, J. M. 1996. Teaching Pronunciation: A Reference for Teachers of English to Speakers of other Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Chipa, A. M. 1983. Language Teacher Competence and Secondary School Students Achievement in French Language Skills in Tanzania. Unpublished MA Thesis. University of Dar es Salaam.

Corder, S. 1981. Error Analysis and Interlanguage. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Deterding, D. H. & G. R. Poedjosoedarmo. 1998. The Sound of English: Phonetics and Phonology for English Teachers in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Prentice Hall.

Faerch, C. & G. Kasper. 1987. “Perspective on Language Transfer”. Applied Linguistics 8(2). 11-36.

Flege, J. 1995. “Second language speech learning: theory, findings, and problems”. Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research, ed. by W. Strange. Baltimore: York Press. 233-277.

Gimson, A. C. 1980. An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. London: Edward Arnold.

Huthaily, K. Y. 2003. Second Language Instruction with Phonology Knowledge: Teaching Arabic to Speakers of English. Unpublished MA Thesis. University of Montana.

Iddi, Z. A. 2011. Phonological Processes in Kimakunduchi Dialect. Unpublished MA Thesis. University of Dar es Salaam.

Institute of Education. 1994. Pronunciation Teaching: English Language Pannel. 2nd Edition. Institute of Education. Dar es Salaam.

Kassulamemba, F. 1977. Tanzania Spoken English Error Analysis of Vowel System. Unpublished MA Thesis. University of Dar es Salaam.

Kellerman, E. & Shawood Smith, M. 1986. Cross-linguistic Influence in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lado, R. 1957. Linguistic Across Cultures. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Lenneberg, E. H. 1967. Biological Foundations of Language. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Online: https://www.ldoceonline.com [8.06.2020].

Maganga, C. 1994. A Study of the Morphology of Standard Kiswahili, Kipemba, Kitumbatu and Kimakunduchi. Unpublished MA Thesis. University of Dar es Salaam.

Maghway, J. B. 1995. “[∂e pizants end wekaz ov efrika] Some pronunciation problems in English in Tanzania”. Journal of Linguistics and Language in Education (New Series 1). 30-45.

Mahundi, P. A. 1976. L’origine des Fautes Morphosytaxiques Chez Les Éléves Tanzaniens Apprenant Le Francais. Analyse et Conséquences Pédagogiques. Unpublished MA Thesis. Université de Besançon.

Massamba, D. P. B. 2002. Historia ya Kiswahili: 50BK hadi 1500BK [The History of Swahili: from 50 AD up to 1500 AD]. Nairobi: Jomo Kenyatta Foundation.

Massamba, D. P. B. 2011. Phonological Theory: History and Development. University of Dar es Salaam: Institute of Kiswahili Studies.

Moustapha, M. 1979. “Percepition Analysis”. Modern Language Journal 63. 435-441.

Mwambapa, I. 2012. The Influence of Kiswahili as L1 on the Acquisition of ESL: A Case Study of Phonological Transfer. Unpublished MA Thesis. University of Dar es Salaam.

Mweteni, Y. 1996. “Error Analysis with Special Reference to Tanzanian Learners of English”. Journal of Linguistics and Language in Education 2. 35-67.

Nickel, G. 1971. “Problems of Learners’ Difficulties in Foreign Language Acquisition”. International Review of Applied Linguistics 9(3). 219-227.

Odden, D. 2005. Introducing Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Odlin, T. 1989. Language Transfer: Cross-Linguistic Influence in Language Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Omary, S. 2002. Pronunciation Problems that Tanzania Learners Encounter in Learning French. Unpublished MA Thesis. University of Dar es Salaam.

Othman, S. Y. 1990. “When International Languages Clash: The Possible Detriment Effects on Development of the Conflict between English and Kiswahili in Tanzania”. Language in Education in Africa: A Tanzania Perspective, ed. by Rubagumya & C. M. Clevedon (Multilingual Matters 57). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. 42-53.

Ragnarsson, H. I. 2011. East African English: Linguistic Features and Background. Unpublished BA Thesis. Háskóli Island [University of Iceland].

Roach, P. 1993. English Phonetics and Phonology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roach, P. 2000. English Phonetics and Phonology (3rd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Roach, P. 2001. Phonetics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Roy-Campbell, Z. & M. Qorro. 1997. The language crisis in Tanzania: The myth of English versus education. Dar es Salaam: Mkuki na Nyota Publishers.

Selinker, L. 1972. “Interlanguage”. IRAL-International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching 10(1-4). 209-232.

Selinker, L. 1992. Rediscovering Inter-language. London: Longman.

Tiono, N. I. & A. M. Yostanto. 2008. “A Study of English Phonological Errors Produced by English Department Students”. Kata 10(1). 79-112.

Yavas, M. 1994. First and Second Language Phonology. San Diego. California: Singular Publishing Group Inc.

Yiing, I. C. 2011. An Analysis of Pronunciation Errors of Six Utar Chinese Studies Undergraduates. Unpublished BA Thesis. Universty Tunku Abdul Rahman.




EDITORIAL OFFICE Department of African Languages and Cultures, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Oriental Studies, ul. Krakowskie Przedmieście 26/28, 00-927 Warszawa, Poland, +48225520517

PUBLISHER University of Warsaw Press, ul. Prosta 69, 4th floor, 00-838 Warszawa, Poland, wuw@uw.edu.pl